An endoscopic exam involves using an instrument, inserted into natural openings or man-made openings, to examine internal passages or the inside of hollow organs or viscera. This can be effective in the nasopharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, large bowel, bladder and parts of the lungs. The common endoscopic procedures used in cancer diagnosis are listed in the table below.

Common Endoscopic Examinations
Examination Site Examined
bronchoscopy bronchi
colonoscopy colon and rectum
cystoscopy urinary bladder
esophagoscopy esophagus
gastroscopy stomach
nasopharyngoscopy nasopharynx, pharynx
ophthalmoscopy interior of the eye
panendoscopy urinary bladder and urethra
proctoscopy rectum
sigmoidoscopy colon up to sigmoid flexure

Updated: March 4, 2024