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SEER Training Modules

Imaging

Key Information

size and location of primary tumor, extension into pubic bone; spread to adjacent tissues or organs; regional lymph nodes; sites of distant organs or lymph nodes involved.

  • KUB (Kidneys-Ureters-Bladder)
    X-rays to evaluate the status of the urinary system. No dye is injected during the procedure. Also called: abdominal flat plate, plain films of abdomen.

    Key words/involvement:
    Stricture, mass, mass effect, metastases, lytic lesion, osteolytic lesion, blastic lesion, osteoblastic lesion, surface irregularities of bladder, filling defect in the bladder, non-functioning kidney, nonvisualized kidney, ureteral obstruction.

    Other words/no involvement:
    If there is no specific reference to visible abnormality in the urinary tract.

  • IVP (Intravenous Pyelogram)
    Series of x-rays which evaluate the structure and function of the kidney, ureters and bladder after radiopaque dye has been injected intravenously. Also called: pyelography, excretory urogram, excretion urography. Excludes: KUB (Kidneys-Ureters-Bladder) radiography during which no dye is used.

    Key words/involvement:
    Stricture, mass effect, metastases, lytic lesion, osteolytic lesion, blastic lesion, osteoblastic lesion, surface irregularities of bladder, filling defect in the bladder, non-functioning kidney, nonvisualized kidney, ureteral obstruction.

    Other words/no involvement:
    If there is no specific reference to visible abnormality in the urinary tract.

  • Retrograde Pyelogram
    Series of x-rays to evaluate the upper urinary tract by using a cystoscope to insert catheters through ureters to level of renal pelvis and inject radiopaque contrast dye. The pelvis, calyces and ureter of a kidney are visualized during this procedure. Retrograde pyelogram is useful if intravenous pyelography is inadequate due to nonvisualized kidney. Also called retrograde pyelography.

    Key words/involvement:
    Mass, stricture, lesion, filling defect, extrinsic mass, narrowing, metastases, non-functioning kidney.

    Other words/no involvement:
    If there is no specific reference to visible abnormality in the urinary tract.

  • Nephrotomography
    Radiographic evaluation of kidneys by taking films of serial, thin sections of renal tissue. Also called: renal tomography, renal tomos. Excludes: computerized tomography of the lungs and plain x-rays of the kidneys.

    Key words/involvement:
    Lesion, irregular density, space occupying lesion, cavitary lesion, homogenous parenchymal lesion with sharply defined margins, multiple opacities, metastases.

    Other words/no involvement:
    If there is no specific reference to visible abnormality in the lungs; references to calcifications, hamartomas, angiomyolipoma, granulomas, cysts, vascular abnormalities, and other benign conditions.

  • Renal Angiography
    Invasive radiographic procedure that injects dye into renal vessels to determine the location of and blood flow to a kidney tumor. The contrast material visualizes both the renal blood vessels and the collecting systems. Also called: digital intravenous angiography, digital fluorography, renal arteriorgraphy, renal venography, renal angiogram

    Key words/involvement:
    Stricture, mass, mass effect, extrinsic mass, metastases, filling defect, obstruction, space occupying lesion, neovascularization, vascular parisitization.

    Other words/no involvement:
    If there is no specific reference to abnormality of the renal vasculature; references to cysts, hamartomas, angiomyolipomas

  • Renocystogram
    X-rays to visualize the bladder, ureters and kidneys after the introduction of intravenous radiopaque contrast material.

    Key words/involvement:
    Stricture, mass, mass effect, metastases, filling defect in the kidney or bladder, nonfunctioning kidney, ureteral obstruction

    Other words/no involvement:
    If there is no reference to abnormality in the urinary tract

  • Renal Ultrasound
    A non-invasive technique to locate abnormalities in the kidney and renal pelvis by recording the patterns of sound waves reflected by tissues. Also called: ultrasonography, echography, sonography, kidney ultrasound, sonogram. The report is sometimes called a scan.

    Key words/involvement:
    Density, mass effect, area of increased attenuation, abnormal density, abnormal echo, cystic mass

    Other words/ no involvement:
    If there is no specific reference to mass, density, metastases, or lesion

  • Imaging, Abdomen/pelvis
  • Imaging, Bone
  • Imaging, Brain
  • Imaging, Liver/spleen

For more information about imaging, you may visit the following pages in the Diagnostic Tests module: Other Imaging.