Here is what we have learned from Surgery:
Any treatment that is given to modify, control, remove or destroy primary or metastatic cancer tissue is considered to be cancer directed treatment. Non-cancer directed treatment refers to any treatment or procudure designed to diagnose or stage the disease, prepare the patient for cancer-directed treatment, prolong a patient's life, alleviate pain, or make the patient comfortable.
Surgery is the oldest form of treatment for cancer.
Ancient Egyptians first conducted medical operations with very primitive surgical tools such as knives, drills, saws, hooks, forceps, and pinchers, some of which, modified somewhat, are still used for surgical purpose today.
New, improved, and more effective surgical tools include laser and radiation (gamma knife).
Types of biopsies include excisional biopsy, incisional biopsy, endoscopic biopsy, colposcopic biopsy, bone marrow biopsy, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and core biopsy. Refer to "All About Biopsies (PDF)" for more details.
Curative surgeries take a much more radical surgical approach, partially or totally removing the organ of origin. In addition to excisional surgeries where more traditional surgical tools such as scalpels are used, modern surgical tools include laser (laser surgery), high-frequency electrical currents (electrosurgery), and radiation (gamma knife), even liquid nitrogen (cryosurgery).
In preventive surgery, the surgeon removes tissue that does not yet contain cancer cells, but has the probability of becoming cancerous in the future. Oophrectomy (removal of both ovaries) is one of the examples of preventive surgery against ovarian cancer.